Bakugan Battle Brawlers (爆丸バトルブローラーズ Bakugan Batoru Burōrāzu?) is a Japanese-Canadian action adventure television series produced by TMS Entertainment and Japan Vistec under the direction of Mitsuo Hashimoto. The story centers on the lives of creatures called Bakugan and the battle brawlers who possess them. Though initially a failure in Japan, the series became popular in the United States and Canada, prompting the creation/order of several follow-up seasons, (New Vestroia, and Gundalian Invaders) which aired in other countries before Japan. The fourth and final season, Mechtanium Surge, was never broadcast in Japan and instead aired in Canadian and U.S. markets. The Bakugan franchise are co-productions from Nelvana Enterprises, Spin Master, Sega Toys and TMS Entertainment, with animation by TMS Entertainment in association with Sega Toys. A spin-off series called Baku Tech! Bakugan which featured the characters from the manga of the same name aired on TV Tokyo from April 7, 2012 to March 30, 2013. It was followed by a sequel series called Baku Tech! Bakugan Gachi which ran from April 6, 2013 to December 28, 2013.